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(1) Until the obligor receives a notice of the assignment from either the assignor or the assignee, it is discharged by paying the assignor. 

 

(2) After the obligor receives such a notice, it is discharged only by paying the assignee.

 

COMMENT

 

1. Effect of notice on the obligor

 

Whereas the assignment is effective between the assignor and the assignee as a result of their agreement (see Article 9.1.7), the obligor will be discharged by paying the assignor until it receives notice of the assignment. If the obligor pays the assignor, the assignee can recover that payment from the assignor (see Article 9.1.15(f)). Only after the obligor receives a notice of assignment does the assignment become effective towards the obligor. The obligor can then be discharged only by paying the assignee.

 

Illustrations

 

1. Seller A assigns its right to payment from buyer X to bank B. Neither A nor B gives notice to X. When payment is due, X pays A. This payment is fully valid and X is discharged. It will be up to B to recover it from A under Article 9.1.15(f).

 

2. Seller A assigns to bank B its right to payment from buyer X. B immediately gives notice of the assignment to X. When payment is due, X still pays A. X is not discharged and B is entitled to oblige X to pay a second time.

 

Before the obligor receives a notice of the assignment, it is discharged when it pays the assignor irrespective of whether it knew, or ought to have known, of the assignment. The purpose is to place the burden of informing the obligor of the assignment on the parties to the assignment agreement, i.e. the assignor and the assignee. This solution is considered to be justified in the context of international commercial contracts. However, it does not necessarily exclude that in certain circumstances the obligor will be liable for damages if it acted in bad faith when it paid the assignor. 

 

Parties sometimes resort to so-called “silent assignments”, where the assignor and the assignee agree not to inform the obligor of the assignment. This arrangement is valid between parties, but since the obligor receives no notice, it will be discharged by paying the assignor, as provided in Article 9.1.10(1).

 

2. Meaning of “notice”

 

“Notice” is to be understood in the broad sense of Article 1.10. Although this Article does not specify the content of the notice, the latter should indicate not only the fact of the assignment, but also the identity of the assignee, the specifications of the right transferred (subject to Article 9.1.6) and, in the case of partial assignment, the extent of the assignment.

 

3. Who should give notice

 

Article 9.1.10(1) leaves the question of who should give notice open, i.e. whether it should be the assignor or the assignee. In practice, it is probable that in most cases the assignee will take the initiative, as it has a major interest in avoiding that the obligor will perform in favour of the assignor notwithstanding the assignment. But notice given by the assignor has the same effect. When notice is given by the assignee, the obligor may request adequate proof of the assignment (see Article 9.1.12).

 

4. When must notice be given

 

This Article does not explicitly require notice to be given only after the assignment agreement has been concluded. In some cases the contract between a future assignor and the obligor will provide that the rights arising from it will be assigned to a financial institution. Whether this can be considered to be adequate notice having the consequences provided for in this Article is a matter of interpretation, and may possibly depend on the definiteness of the clause regarding the identity of the future assignee.

 

5. Revocation of notice

 

Notice given to the obligor can be revoked in certain circumstances, e.g. if the assignment agreement itself becomes invalid, or if an assignment made for security purposes is no longer necessary. This will not affect payments made before the revocation to the person who was the assignee at the time, but if the obligor pays that person after the revocation it would no longer be discharged.

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