Study LXXXVI - Legal Nature of Voluntary Carbon Credits

The concept of carbon credit was introduced in the Kyoto Protocol of 1997 with the purpose of reducing the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) into the atmosphere. Since then, a number of international treaties and domestic laws have introduced related regulations seeking to fight global warming. Special reference is due to the Paris Agreement of 2015, which provides for carbon trading as a key means of reducing carbon emissions globally.

Instruments such as the Kyoto Protocol and Paris Agreement have encouraged the development of an international market for the creation and trading of carbon certificates. In parallel with the development of compliance carbon markets, demand for carbon credits from entities that are not under an obligation to participate in carbon markets has also grown. Voluntary carbon credits (“VCCs”) represent a certification stating that the holder, either directly or indirectly, has reduced or removed from the atmosphere one metric ton of carbon dioxide equivalent in line with applicable rules and requirements. VCCs typically are constituted outside of any regulatory or compliance framework and are generally chosen by the relevant stakeholders as a means to offset emissions and help meet net-zero emission goals.

Investment and transactions concerning this type of complex asset require legal certainty, something which cannot be taken for granted in unregulated and unsupervised markets. As voluntary carbon markets grow in size and complexity, the trading in VCCs would be significantly enhanced if steps were taken, both nationally and internationally, to better understand the legal nature of VCCs.

The main objective of the UNIDROIT Project on the Legal Nature of Voluntary Carbon Credits (the “VCCs Project” or “Project”) is thus to provide guidance on private law issues so as to enhance confidence in VCC transactions and support the development of a well-functioning market which could play a central role in fighting climate change, achieving the goals of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (“UNFCCC”), in particular the Paris Agreement, and facilitate the fulfilment of the UN Sustainable Development Goals. Given that a significant share of the projects that generate VCCs are located in developing economies, a reliable carbon credit market also provides an opportunity to increase capital flow to emerging markets and provide funding to projects that may not otherwise receive adequate support.

On 24 January 2022, the International Swaps and Derivatives Association (“ISDA”) submitted a proposal to UNIDROIT recommending that UNIDROIT consider a project to analyse the legal nature of VCCs. ISDA’s proposal was expressly supported by the Government of Paraguay in a letter received by the UNIDROIT Secretariat on 9 May 2022.

At its 101st Session (Rome, 8-10 June 2022), the UNIDROIT Governing Council unanimously recommended the inclusion of the VCCs Project in Unidroit’s 2023-2025 Work Programme, with high priority (see paras 50-60, UNIDROIT 2022 – C.D. (101) 4 rev). While the Governing Council recognised the similarities of the VCCs Project to the UNIDROIT Project on Digital Assets and Private Law (the “DAPL Project”), it identified sufficient distinct features of VCCs to recommend that a separate Working Group be established for the VCCs Project. The Governing Council’s recommendation was unanimously endorsed by the UNIDROIT General Assembly at its 81st session (Rome, 15 December 2022) (see paras 75-78, UNIDROIT 2022 – A.G. (81) 3).

Following receipt of the mandate, the UNIDROIT Secretariat organised a First Exploratory Consultative Workshop (the “First Exploratory Workshop”) in collaboration with the World Bank Group and ISDA, held at ISDA headquarters in London on 27 March 2023. The purpose of the First Exploratory Workshop was that of identifying current issues in the VCC field and delineating the scope of the Project. A preliminary discussion paper was prepared by the Secretariat to guide the discussion. The First Exploratory Workshop was attended by twenty-four participants, including representatives from international organisations, industry and academia, as well as practitioners and members of the UNIDROIT Secretariat. The First Exploratory Workshop sought to consider, among other matters, the following items:

(a)            Key concepts;

(b)            Key considerations regarding the legal nature of VCCs;

(c)            Ownership, creation, and transferability of VCCs;

(d)            Secured transactions involving VCCs, including collateralisation;

(e)            Custodians/intermediaries;

(f)            Applicable law issues;

(g)            Treatment in case of insolvency; and

(h)            Local market regulatory oversight.

An update on the status of the VCCs Project, drawing on the conclusions of the First Exploratory Workshop as well as on the Secretariat’s own research, was presented to the UNIDROIT Governing Council at its 102nd session (Rome, 10-12 May 2023). On this occasion, the Governing Council confirmed the authorisation to establish a Working Group, in collaboration with the World Bank Group, tasked with developing an international law instrument to provide guidance on the legal nature and other private law aspects of VCCs (the “VCCs Working Group”).

A Second Exploratory Consultative Workshop was held at the World Bank Group offices in Vienna on 11 July 2023 (the “Second Exploratory Workshop”). The Second Exploratory Workshop was attended by twenty-eight participants, including experts from international organisations, development banks, academia and the private sector, as well as representatives from the UNIDROIT Secretariat. The Second Exploratory Workshop built on the work of the First Exploratory Workshop and discussed, among other things, the following items:

(a)            Key concepts;

(b)            Main actors involved in the VCC life cycle;

(c)            Key considerations regarding the legal nature of VCCs;

(d)            Ownership of VCCs;

(e)            Transferability of VCCs;

(f)            Secured transactions and collateralisation of VCCs;

(g)            Retirement of carbon credits;

(h)            VCC price;

(i)            VCC accounting;

(j)            Treatment in case of insolvency;

(k)            Local market regulator oversight;

(l)            Applicable law issues;

(m)            Sector-specific carbon credits; and

(n)            Relevant issues not to be included in the Project’s scope.

The Second Exploratory Workshop closed with the participants noting that next steps would be delineated in coordination with UNIDROIT’s sister organizations, including with the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) Secretariat in light of UNCITRAL’s 56th Commission Session held in Vienna on 3-21 July 2023, and with the Hague Conference on Private International Law (“HCCH”).

As consistent with the Institute’s established working methodology, a Working Group has been established, composed of members selected for their expertise in the fields of carbon credit trading, environmental law, property law, contract law, secured transactions, and digital technology. Experts participate in a personal capacity and represent different legal systems and geographical regions. The project is done with the support of the World Bank Group and, at this stage, work is being conducted in cooperation with UNCITRAL.  In light of this, World Bank Group and UNCITRAL representatives, as well as UNCITRAL-appointed experts, participated in the Working Group’s First Session.


The Working Group is currently comprised of the following expert members:

    • Filippo Annunziata, Professor of Financial Markets and Banking Law, Università Bocconi Milano (Italy)
    • Ipshita Chaturvedi, Partner, Dentons Rodyk (Singapore) (nominated by UNCITRAL)
    • Géraud de Lassus St-Geniès, Professor of Law, Laval University (Canada) (nominated by UNCITRAL)
    • Luca Enriques, Professor of Corporate Law, University of Oxford (United Kingdom/Italy)
    • Megumi Hara, Professor of Law, Chuo University (Japan)
    • Caroline Kleiner, Professor of Law, University Paris Cité (France)
    • Matthias Lehmann, Professor of Private Law, University of Vienna (Austria)
    • Ludovino Lopes, Founding Partner, Ludovino Lopes Sociedade de Advogados (Brazil/Portugal)
    • Kelvin Low, Professor of Private Law, National University of Singapore (Singapore)
    • Andrea Tosato, Associate Professor of Commercial Law, University of Nottingham (United Kingdom) and Visiting Associate Professor in Law, University of Pennsylvania (United States of America)
    • Rolf H. Weber, Professor, University of Zurich (Switzerland)
    • Zhang Xiaoping, Associate Professor of Law, Central University of Finance and Economics (People’s Republic of China) (nominated by UNCITRAL)

In addition, international, intergovernmental, and nongovernmental organisations, as well as individual members of academia and the private sector, have been invited to attend the Working Group sessions as observers. Participation of these organisations and stakeholders will ensure that different perspectives are taken into account in the development and adoption of any future international instrument.


The below organisations have joined the Working Group as institutional observers:

    • Hague Conference on Private International Law (HCCH)
    • Asia Development Bank (ADB)
    • Asia-Pacific Financial Forum (APFF)
    • Environmental Defense Fund (EDF)
    • Frank J. Guarini Center on Environmental, Energy and Land Use Law at New York University School of Law
    • Inter-American Development Bank (IADB)
    • International Emissions Trading Association (IETA)
    • European Law Institute (ELI)
    • International Law Institute (ILI)
    • International Organization of Securities Commissions (IOSCO)
    • International Swaps and Derivatives Association (ISDA)
    • Nigerian Securities and Exchange Commission
    • Stock Exchange of Thailand
    • TOSCA Research Group, Centre for Responsible Digitalisation
    • United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) (appointed by UNCITRAL)
    • West African Alliance on Carbon Markets and Climate Finance


The following individuals have joined the Working Group as observers, in a personal capacity:

    • Dessanin Ewèdew Thierry Awesso, Teaching Assistant, Université Côte d’Azur (France/Togo)
    • Malik R. Dahlan, Emeritus Professor of International Law and Public Policy, Queen Mary University of London (United Kingdom)
    • Blanca López Bassa, Chief Legal Officer, Paskay (Peru)
    • Marisa Martin, Pollination (United States of America)
    • Gabriela Melgarejo, Researcher, Centro de Educación de Derecho, Economía y Política (CEDEP) (Paraguay)
    • Jason Norman Lee, Managing Director, Legal & Regulatory, Temasek International Pte. Ltd (Singapore)
    • Cameron Prell, Managing Director, The dCarbon Group (United States of America)
    • Rodrigo Jesús Rodrígues Tornquist, Professor, Universidad Nacional de San Martín (Argentina)
    • Munkh-Orgil Tseng, Member of the State Great Hural (Parliament) (Mongolia)
    • Ingrid York, Partner, White & Case LLP (United Kingdom)
    • Peter Zaman, Partner, Holman Fenwick Willan LLP (Singapore)

José Antonio Moreno Rodriguez, Member of UNIDROIT’s Governing Council, as well as Suzanne Howarth and Antenor Madruga, respectively UNIDROIT Correspondents for Australia and Brazil, participate in the Working Group as observers.  Professor Louise Gullifer (University of Cambridge) acts as a Senior Advisor to the UNIDROIT Secretariat for this project.

The composition of the Working Group is still an open process and additional members and observers may be added in due course.


First Working Group Session

The First Session of the Working Group on the Legal Nature of Voluntary Carbon Credits was held at the seat of UNIDROIT in Rome on 10-12 October 2023.


Second Working Group Session

The Second Session of the Working Group on the Legal Nature of Voluntary Carbon Credits will take place at the seat of UNIDROIT in Rome on 22-24 April 2024.